Institute of Commercial Management | Qualification Subject

Travel & Tourism Development

ICM Professional Diploma Unit

Emergence of Sustainable Tourism

  • Status of global tourism 2004
  • Jafari’s “Platform” model
  • Institutionalisation of sustainable tourism

Issues in Sustainable Tourism

  • Issues in Sustainable Tourism
  • Flexibility
  • Status quo or enhancement?
  • Complexity of tourism systems
  • Minimalist and comprehensive composite models
  • Sustainable tourism indicators
  • Bellagio Principles
  • Pursuing sustainable tourism

Alternative Tourism

  • History of alternative tourism
  • Typology of alternative tourism products
  • Mass conventional tourism and alternative tourism ideal types
  • Deliberate and circumstantial alternative tourism
  • Farm-based tourism
  • Volunteer tourism
  • Guesthouse tourism
  • Backpacking
  • Urban alternative tourism
  • Education tourism
  • Potential problems

Conventional Mass Tourism

  • Structure of the formal tourism industry
  • Ethics
  • In situ nature of tourism consumption
  • Emergence of the “green consumer”
  • Advantages of large economies of scale

The Facilitating Sectors

  • Travel agencies
  • Specialised merchandise: guidebooks
  • Outbound tour operators
  • Transportation providers
  • Hospitality providers


  • Role of attractions
  • Theme parks
  • Casinos
  • Ski resorts
  • Golf courses

Quality Control

  • Quality control
  • Codes of conduct
  • Ecolabels
  • Awards

Tourist Destinations

  • Destination and place
  • Destination and community
  • Broad context model of destination development scenarios
  • Destination types
  • Special events
  • Quality control and destinations

Spatial Strategies for Destinations

  • Frontstage and backstage
  • Development standards
  • Zoning and districting
  • Purchase of Development Rights (PDR) agreements
  • Trade-offs
  • Government incentives

Visitor Management Strategies for Destinations

  • Visitation caps
  • Redistribution
  • Education
  • Target marketing

Ecotourism: The Conscience of Sustainable Tourism

  • Definitions and criteria
  • Hard and soft manifestations
  • Ecotourism industry
  • Spatial distribution
  • Potential costs and benefits
  • Quality control
  • Hard and soft ecotourism within a comprehensive framework

Example Candidate Response Booklet

Example Candidate Response (ECR) Booklets are a source of crucial information for Centres and Candidates as they use real candidate responses. We ask Senior Examiners to comment on five or more responses in terms of why the mark was awarded with commentary about how to improve the answer (if necessary).

Recommended Reading

Main Text:

Sustainable Tourism – David Weaver (Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann)

Indicative Text:

Alternative Text and Further Reading: