Institute of Commercial Management | Qualification Subject

Structure Of Travel & Tourism

Main Topics of Study

An Introduction to Tourism

  • Defining tourism
  • The tourist product
  • The nature of a tour
  • The tourist destination

The History of Tourism: From Its Origins to the Age of Steam

  • Introduction
  • Travel in the Middle Ages
  • Developments in road transport in the seventeenth to early nineteenth centuries
  • The grand tour
  • Political hindrance to travel
  • The development of the spas
  • The rise of the seaside resort
  • The conditions favouring the expansion of travel in the nineteenth century
  • The age of steam
  • Other late-nineteenth-century developments

Tourism in the Twentieth Century

  • The first fifty years
  • Tourism since World War II
  • Factors influencing changes in tourism demand

Tourist Motivation and Behaviour

  • Introduction
  • The tourist’s needs and wants
  • General and specific motivation
  • Motivators and facilitators
  • Psychological and sociological factors influencing motivation
  • The motivation of business travellers

The Structure and Organisation of the Travel and Tourism Industry

  • The tourism chain of distribution
  • Common-interest organisations
  • Integration in the tourism industry
  • Conglomerates and international integration

Passenger Transport: the Aviation Business

  • Introduction
  • The airline business
  • The organisation of air transport
  • Air transport regulation
  • Deregulation of air transport
  • The economics of airline operation
  • The marketing of air services

Water-borne Passenger Transport

  • Introduction
  • The ocean liners
  • Cruising
  • Ferry services
  • Coastal and inland waterways tourism
  • Seagoing pleasure craft

Other Modes of Tourist Travel

  • The role of the railways in tourism
  • Coach travel
  • The private car
  • Cycling and tourism
  • Tourists on foot

The Hospitality Sector: Accommodation and Catering Services

  • Introduction
  • The structure of the accommodation sector
  • The nature of demand for accommodation facilities
  • The distribution of accommodation
  • Environmental issues

Visitor Attractions and Visitor Management

  • Introduction
  • Seaside resorts
  • Spa tourism
  • Urban tourism
  • Rural tourism
  • Purpose-built attractions
  • Other site attractions
  • Cultural tourism
  • Retail shopping
  • Events

Tour Operating

  • The role of the tour operator
  • The specialised roles of tour operators
  • The British tour operating scene
  • The nature of tour operating
  • Control over tour operating
  • Planning, marketing and operating package tours
  • The process of negotiating
  • The role of the resort representative
  • Pricing the package tour
  • The tour brochure
  • The reservations system
  • The distribution network
  • The IT revolution and its impact on tour operating

Travel Retailing

  • Introduction
  • The role of travel agents
  • Setting up and running a travel agency
  • Travel agency skills and competences
  • Business travel
  • Travel agency appointments
  • Profitability of travel agents

Ancillary Tourism Services

  • Introduction
  • Services to the tourist
  • Services to the supplier
  • Marketing services

The Structure and Role of Public Sector Tourism

  • Introduction
  • The nature of government involvement
  • Planning and facilitating tourism
  • Control and supervision in tourism
  • The organisation of public sector tourism
  • Public sector tourism in Britain
  • Functions of the tourist boards

Tourism Design and Management

  • Introduction
  • The role of design in tourism
  • The management of tourism sites

The Social and Environmental Impact of Tourism

  • Introduction
  • The environmental effects of tourism
  • Planning for control and conservation
  • The socio-cultural effects of tourism
  • Managing the social impact of tourism
  • The future of tourism

Example Candidate Response Booklet

Example Candidate Response (ECR) Booklets are a source of crucial information for Centres and Candidates as they use real candidate responses. We ask Senior Examiners to comment on five or more responses in terms of why the mark was awarded with commentary about how to improve the answer (if necessary).

Recommended Reading

Main Text:

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The Business of Tourism - Christopher Holloway(Published by FT Prentice Hall)

Indicative Text:

Alternative Text and Further Reading: