Institute of Commercial Management | Qualification Subject

Programming For TV, Radio & The Internet

The History of Programming

  • The need for programming
  • The early days of programming
  • The beginning of network programming
  • Radio
  • The introduction of television and its effect on radio
  • Programming cycles and trends
  • The switch from shows to formats
  • Television’s golden age of drama
  • Quiz shows
  • The television networks take over programming
  • The development of public broadcasting
  • The financial interest and domestic syndication rule
  • The rise of independent stations and syndicators
  • The explosion of cable
  • Syndication in radio
  • New networks with targeted and niche programming
  • The quest for young demographic
  • Viewing patterns and changing audience attention spans
  • The decline of Long-Form Programming
  • Supercharged programming choices: the internet
  • New media recording technologies
  • The rise of consumer-supported media
  • The video game explosion
  • Regulations
  • Globalisation

Sources of Television Programming

  • Major production companies
  • Independent production companies
  • Foreign production sources
  • Networks
  • Stations
  • Buyers
  • Syndicators
  • Advertisers
  • In-house production
  • Members of the public
  • Newspapers, magazines and books
  • Managers, agents and stars

Sources of Radio and Internet Programming

  • Sources of programming for radio
  • Sources of internet programming


  • Television development
  • Radio development
  • Internet development


  • Television testing
  • Radio testing
  • Internet testing

Elements of Successful Programming

  • Television programming
  • Radio programming
  • Internet programming

Influences on Television Programming

  • External influences on television
  • Internal influences on television

Influences on Radio and Internet Programming

  • Influences on radio programming
  • Influences on internet programming

Scheduling Strategies for Television

  • Television scheduling
  • Fitting the show to the available audience
  • Launching the show
  • Counterprogramming
  • Bridging and supersizing
  • Crossprogramming
  • Changing the time slot
  • Boosting the audience

Scheduling Strategies for Radio and the Internet

  • Commercial radio scheduling
  • Satellite radio scheduling
  • Public radio scheduling
  • Internet scheduling

Programme Evaluation

  • Television
  • Commercial radio
  • The internet
  • Ratings

Changing and Cancelling Programmes

  • Television
  • Radio
  • The internet

Example Candidate Response Booklet

Example Candidate Response (ECR) Booklets are a source of crucial information for Centres and Candidates as they use real candidate responses. We ask Senior Examiners to comment on five or more responses in terms of why the mark was awarded with commentary about how to improve the answer (if necessary).

Recommended Reading

Main Text:

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Programming for TV, Radio and The Internet, Philippe Perebinossoff, Brian Gross & Lynne S Gross, Focal Press, Oxford (2005)

Indicative Text:

Alternative Text and Further Reading: