Institute of Commercial Management | Qualification Subject

Port Operations & Management

Main Topics of Study

Introduction to ports and their functions

  • The role of ports in international trade and transport
  • Seaports and their functions in the 21st century
  • The effect of globalisation on ports, logistics and distribution patterns
  • Criteria used for port location
  • Access, flexibility and interface with other transport modes
  • Hub ports; feeder transhipment
  • Types of port ownership and current trends

Legal aspects of port management

  • Port constitutions and legal framework of ownership
  • National legislation, port laws and bye-laws
  • Government’s role in financing port development

Port planning

  • Government port development
  • Port planning and project planning
  • Infrastructure/operating structure
  • Joint ventures, financing and management
  • Berth occupancy, service time, waiting time, capacity calculations
  • Layout, physical constraints and terminal planning
  • Flow analysis
  • Analysis of key environmental issues

Port ownership

  • Differing types of ownership in the public and private sectors
  • Deregulation
  • Methods of privatisation; sale of shares, management buyouts
  • Lease contract and joint ventures

Finance of port operations

  • Budgeting
  • Control of capital and revenue expenditure
  • Project evaluation and review techniques
  • Capital investment appraisal
  • Analysis and monitoring of direct and indirect costs
  • Analysis of performance
  • Appraisal of finance and economics of port proposals and traffic forecasting

Port equipment

  • Port buildings
  • Large handling equipment
  • Trends in vessels and cargo handling
  • Vessel size
  • Procurement and materials management

Port management 1

  • Structure
  • Organisation of activities performance measurement
  • Marine operations – conservancy, dredging, navigation aids etc.
  • Avoidance of congestion

Port management 2

  • Role of trade unions, labour organisations and ITF
  • Statutory bodies. Customs, immigration, port health, marine safety
  • Needs of port users, owners, operators, agents, forwarders
  • Information flow

Port security management

  • Importance of safety management
  • Prevention of terrorism
  • Illegal immigration, theft and smuggling

Port competition and marketing

  • Nature of national and international port competition
  • Market information trade growth, vessel development, commercial needs, financial viability
  • Location, vessel transit times and port rotation
  • Role of shipowners/operators, shippers, receivers, freight contractors, forwarders promotion to potential users
  • Impact of inland transportation

Port pricing

  • Nature and type of port charges
  • Cost factors in pricing, infrastructure, navigation services, equipment, staff and labour etc
  • Pricing policy and mechanisms
  • Effect of competition on pricing policy
  • Demand influences
  • Regulatory mechanisms

Example Candidate Response Booklet

Example Candidate Response (ECR) Booklets are a source of crucial information for Centres and Candidates as they use real candidate responses. We ask Senior Examiners to comment on five or more responses in terms of why the mark was awarded with commentary about how to improve the answer (if necessary).

Recommended Reading

Main Text:

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Port Management and Operations - P. Anderton (Lloyd’s Practical Shipping Guides)

Indicative Text:

Alternative Text and Further Reading:

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Global Logistics and Supply Chain Management A.Branch ( Routledge)

Export Practice and Management A.Branch ( Routledge)

Lloyd’s List and Shipping Gazette