Institute of Commercial Management | Qualification Subject


ICM Professional Diploma Unit

The Nature of Negotiation

  • Characteristics of a negotiation situation
  • Interdependence
  • Mutual adjustment
  • Value claiming and value creation
  • Conflict
  • Effective conflict management

Strategy and Tactics of Distributive Bargaining

  • The distributive bargaining situation
  • Tactical tasks
  • Positions taken during negotiation
  • Closing the deal
  • Hardball tactics

Strategy and Tactics of Integrative Negotiation

  • An overview of the integrative negotiation process
  • Key steps in the integrative negotiation process
  • Factors that facilitate successful integrative negotiation

Negotiation: Strategy and Planning

  • Goals
  • Strategy versus tactics
  • The planning process

Ethics in Negotiation

  • Ethical quandaries
  • The meaning of ethics and their importance in negotiation
  • Why ethical conduct issues arise in negotiations
  • Deceptive tactics – motives and consequences
  • Dealing with deception

Perception, Cognition and Emotion

  • Perception
  • Framing
  • Cognitive biases in negotiation
  • Managing misperceptions and cognitive biases in negotiation
  • Mood, emotion and negotiation


  • Communication during negotiation
  • How people communicate in negotiation
  • Improving communication in negotiation
  • Communication and closing negotiation

Finding and Using Negotiation Power

  • The importance of power
  • The definition of power
  • Dealing with others who have more power

Relationships in Negotiation

  • Negotiations in communal sharing relationships
  • Key elements in managing negotiations within relationships

Multiple Parties, Groups and Teams in Negotiations

  • The nature of multiparty negotiations
  • Managing multiparty negotiations

International and Cross-Cultural Negotiations

  • How international negotiations differ
  • Conceptualising culture and negotiation
  • Managerial perspectives
  • Research perspectives
  • Culturally responsive negotiation strategies

Best Practices in Negotiation

  • Approaches and techniques

Example Candidate Response Booklet

Example Candidate Response (ECR) Booklets are a source of crucial information for Centres and Candidates as they use real candidate responses. We ask Senior Examiners to comment on five or more responses in terms of why the mark was awarded with commentary about how to improve the answer (if necessary).

Recommended Reading

Main Text:

Essentials of Negotiation

Indicative Text:

Alternative Text and Further Reading: