This unit introduces students to cinematography. Students will explore the features of single camera production and single camera operations to develop the skills required for the safe set-up, operation and movements of a single camera in order to capture a range of shots. Students will also investigate the use of lighting in cinematography and gain an understanding of the effects of lighting in storytelling and camera composition.
1 Understand the features of single camera production
- Camera department personnel e.g. Director of photography, camera operator, 1st assistant camera, 2nd assistant camera, Grip
- Types of single camera production e.g. drama, soap opera, comedy, documentary, adverts
- Process e.g. shooting script, filming schedule, storyboarding
- Advantages e.g. cheaper, more control, flexible
- Limitations e.g. time-consuming to set up, lots of repetition, longer editing time, less natural reactions
2 Understand single camera operations
- Exposure e.g. ISO, aperture, shutter speed
- Camera angles e.g. birds’ eye, high angle, eye level, low angle, 180-degree rule
- Shot Types e.g. establishing shot, master shot, tracking shots, cutaways
- Shot framing e.g. wide shot, mid shot, medium close-up, extreme close-up, point of view (POV), over-the-shoulder, three angle shooting, shot-reverse-shot and the 180-degree rule
- Camera movement e.g. dollying, trucking and panning, zooming, dolly zoom or ‘trombone shot’, focus pulling.
3 Demonstrate the safe setup, operation and movement of a single camera
- Care of lenses e.g. correct storage, correct handling, correct cleaning
- Safe use of camera e.g. sequence of operations, checking of equipment, conducting risk assessments.
- Movement e.g. e.g. dollying, trucking and panning, zooming, dolly zoom or ‘trombone shot’, focus pulling.
4 Explore the set up and use of lighting equipment
- Uses of lighting e.g. shadowing, creation of atmospheric effects, obscuring of detail to provoke imagination, performance-based spotlighting, strobing, lighting to convey mood, lighting to create contrast, modelling of light, time of day, natural conditions
- Lighting setups e.g. three-point lighting, four-point lighting, stage lights, lighting for portraiture, lighting for factual programming.
- Lighting equipment e.g. portable lighting equipment e.g. redheads, blondes, practical’s, barn doors, board reflectors, diffuser, scrim, lighting gels, cutters
- Purposes e.g. quality and positioning e.g. hard and soft light, key, fill and back lighting, directional lighting
- Safe use of lighting equipment e.g. sequence of operations, checking of equipment, conducting risk assessments.